Welcome to keepin' it REAL

Overview

keepin’ it REAL (kiR) is culturally-grounded substance use prevention curriculum for grades 6-9 that has been proven effective for reducing alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and increasing anti-drug attitudes and beliefs. kiR also enhances life skills such as decision-making and interpersonal communication.

kiR aims to teach students how to use the four resistance strategies- Refuse, Explain, Avoid, and Leave (REAL)- that have been found to be commonly used among youth.  This curriculum wil help youth learn how to assess the social situation in which substances are being offered, decide which resistances strategy will be most effective, and employ that strategy to resist using alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs.

kiR includes 10 lessons and 4 videos that were developed by kids and for kids.  The curriculum has been tested with over 7,000 middle-school students in Phoenix, Arizona.  kiR is identified as a Model Program by the Center for Substance Abuse Programs (CSAP) and is listed on the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s (SAMHSA) National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP). Find more information about kiR as a Legacy Program through SAMHSA.

Mantente REAL is a Spanish language version of keepin' it REAL designed for youth living in Latin America and Spain. Mantente REAL has been implemented in Mexico, Guatemala, Uruguay, and Spain.  Find more information about the Mantente REAL international projects.

 

Research supporting keepin' it REAL

Efficacy and Effectiveness of kiR

Dixon, A. L., Yabiku, S. T., Okamoto, S. K., Tann, S. S., Marsiglia, F. F., Kulis, S., & Burke, A.M. (2007). The efficacy of a multicultural prevention intervention among urban American Indian youth in the Southwest U.S. Journal of Primary Prevention, 28, 547-568. doi: 10.1007/s10935-007-0114-8.  Read full article PMCID: PMC3042736

Hecht, M. L., Elek, E., Wagstaff, D. A., Kam, J. A., Marsiglia, F. F., Dustman, P. A., Reeves, L. J., & Harthun, M. L. (2008). Immediate and short-term effects of the 5th grade version of the keepin' it REAL substance use prevention intervention. Journal of Drug Education, 38, 225-251. doi: 10.2190/DE.38.3.c. Read full article PMCID: PMC2892822

Hecht, M. L., Marsiglia, F. F., Elek, E., Wagstaff, D. A., Kulis, S., & Dustman, P. A. (2003). Culturally-grounded substance use prevention: An evaluation of the keepin’ it REAL curriculum. Prevention Science4, 233-248. Read abstract PMID14598996

Kulis, S., Marsiglia, F. F., Elek, E., Dustman, P. A., Wagstaff, D. A., & Hecht, M. L. (2005). Mexican/Mexican American adolescents and keepin’ it REAL: An evidence-based substance use prevention program. Children and Schools, 27, 133-145. Read full article PMCID: PMC3043619

Kulis, S., Nieri, T. A., Yabiku, S. T, Stromwall, L., & Marsiglia, F. F. (2007). Promoting reduced and discontinued substance use among adolescent substance users: Effectiveness of a universal prevention program. Prevention Science, 8, 35-49. Read full article PMCID: PMC3055561

Kulis, S., Yabiku, S. T., Marsiglia, F. F., Nieri, T. A., & Crossman, A. (2007). Differences by gender, ethnicity and acculturation in the efficacy of the keepin’ it REAL model prevention program. Journal of Drug Education 37, 123-144. Read full article PMCID: PMC3838635

Marsiglia, F. F. (2010). A culturally grounded approach to drug prevention with Latino children and youth. In Fortune, A. E., McCallion, P., & Briar-Lawson, K. (Eds.). Social work practice research for the 21st century (pp. 138-153). New York: Columbia University Press.[AS(1] 

Marsiglia, F. F., Ayers, S., Gance-Cleveland, B., Mentler, K., & Booth, J. M. (2012). Beyond primary prevention of alcohol use: A culturally specific secondary prevention program for Mexican heritage adolescents. Prevention Science, 13, 241-251. PMCID: PMC3401063 Read full article PMCID: PMC3401063

Marsiglia, F. F., Booth, J., Ayers, S. L., Nuño-Gutierrez, B. L., Kulis, S., & Hoffman, S. (2014). Short-term effects on substance use of the keepin' it REAL pilot prevention program: Linguistically adapted for youth in Jalisco, Mexico. Prevention Science, 15(5), 694-704. doi: 10.1007/s11121-013-0421-7  Read full article PMCID: PMC3864112

Marsiglia, F. F., Kulis, S., Booth, J. M., Nuño-Gutierrez, B. L., Robbins, D. E. (2015). Long-term effects of the keepin’ it REAL model program in Mexico: Substance use trajectories of Guadalajara middle school students. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 36(2), 93-104. doi: 10.1007/s10935-014-0380-1 Read full article  PMCID: PMC4503325[AS(2] 

Marsiglia, F. F., Kulis, S., Yabiku, S. T., Nieri, T. A., & Coleman, E. (2011). When to intervene: elementary school, middle school or both? Effects of keepin' it REAL on substance use trajectories of Mexican heritage youth. Prevention Science, 12, 48-62. doi: 10.1007/s11121-010-0189-y  Read full article PMCID: PMC3042028

Marsiglia, F. F., Peña, V., Nieri, T. A., & Nagoshi, J. L. (2010). REAL Groups: The design and immediate effects of a prevention intervention for Latino children. Social Work with Groups, 33, 103-121. doi: 10.1080/01609510903366202.  Read full article PMCID: PMC2904465

Marsiglia, F. F., Yabiku, S. T., Kulis, S., Nieri, T. A., & Lewin, B. (2010). Influences of school Latino composition and linguistic acculturation on a prevention program for youths. Social Work Research, 34, 6-19.  Read full article PMCID: PMC2922772

Nieri, T. A., Apkarian, J., Kulis, S., & Marsiglia, F. F. (2015). Effects of a youth substance use prevention program on stealing, fighting, and weapon use. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 36(1), 41-49. Doi: 10.1007/s10935-014-0373-0  Read full article PMCID: PMC4289019

Warren, J. R., Hecht, M. L., Wagstaff, D. A., Elek, E., Ndiaya, K., Dustman, P. A., & Marsiglia, F. F. (2006). Communicating prevention: The effects of the keepin’ it REALclassroom videotapes and televised PSAs on middle-school students’ substance use. Journal of Applied Communication Research34, 210-228. doi: 10.1080/00909880600574153. Read abstract

Yabiku, S. T., Kulis, S., Marsiglia, F. F., Lewin, B., Nieri, T. A., & Hussaini, S. (2007). Neighborhood effects on the efficacy of a program to prevent youth alcohol use. Substance Use and Misuse, 42, 65-87. doi: 10.1080/10826080601094264. Read full article PMCID: PMC3046879

Development and Adaptation of kiR

 

Gosin, M. N., Dustman, P. A., Drapeau, A. E., & Harthun, M. L. (2003). Participatory action research: Creating an effective prevention curriculum for adolescents in the Southwest. Health Education Research: Theory and Practice18, 363-379. doi: 10.1093/her/cyf026. Read abstract PMID12828237

Gosin, M., Marsiglia, F. F., & Hecht, M. L. (2003). keepin' it R.E.A.L: A drug resistance curriculum tailored to the strengths and needs of preadolescents of the Southwest. Journal of Drug Education33, 119-142. Read abstract PMID12929705

Harthun, M. L., Drapeau, A. E., Dustman, P. A., & Marsiglia, F. F. (2002). Implementing a prevention curriculum: An effective researcher-teacher partnership. Education and Urban Society34, 353-364. Read abstract

Harthun, M. L., Dustman, P. A., Reeves, L. J., Hecht, M. L., & Marsiglia, F. F. (2009). Using community-based participatory research to adapt keepin’ it REAL: Creating a socially, developmentally, and academically appropriate prevention curriculum for 5th graders. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 53, 12-38.  Read full article PMCID: PMC2971695

Harthun, M. L., Dustman, P. A., Reeves, L. J., Hecht, M. L., & Marsiglia, F. F. (2008). Culture in the classroom: Developing teacher proficiency in delivering a culturally-grounded prevention curriculum. Journal of Primary Prevention, 43, 435-454. doi: 10.1007/s10935-008-0150-z. Read full article PMCID: PMC2615230

 

Holleran, L., Reeves, L. J., Dustman, P. A., & Marsiglia, F. F. (2002). Creating culturally grounded videos for substance abuse prevention: A dual perspective on process. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions2, 55-78. Read abstract

Reeves, L.  J., Dustman, P. A., Holleran, L., & Marsiglia, F. F. (2008). Creating culturally-grounded prevention video: Defining moments in the journey to collaboration. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions8, 65-94. Read abstract

Other Findings from kiR Research

Ayers, S. L., Kulis, S., & Marsiglia, F. F. (2013). The impact of ethnoracial appearance on substance use in Mexican heritage adolescents. Hispanic Journal of the Behavioral Sciences, 3, 227-240. doi: 10.117710739986312467940 Read full article PMCID: PMC3881429

Booth, J. M., Marsiglia, F. F., Nuño-Gutierrez, B. L., & Garcia-Perez, M. (2014). The association between engaging in romantic relationships and Mexican adolescent substance use offers: Exploring gender differences. Substance Use & Misuse, 49(11), 1480-1490.  doi: 10.3109/10826084.2014.913627 Read abstract PMID24827864

Elek, E., Miller-Day, M., & Hecht, M. (2006). Influences of personal, injunctive, and descriptive norms on early adolescent substance use. Journal of Drug Issues, 36, 147-171. Read abstract

Hodge, D. R., Marsiglia, F. F., & Nieri, T. A. (2011). Religion and substance use among youth of Mexican heritage: A social capital perspective. Social Work Research, 35, 3, 137-146.  Read full article PMCID: PMC3229215

Holley, L. C., Kulis, S., Marsiglia, F. F., Keith, V. M. (2006). Ethnicity versus ethnic identity: What predicts substance use norms and behaviors? Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 6, 53-79. Read abstract

Holley, L.C., Moya Salas, L., Marsiglia, F. F., Yabiku, S. T., Fitzharris, B., & Jackson, K.F. (2009). Youth of Mexican descent of the Southwest: Exploring differences in ethnic labels. Children and Schools, 31, 15-26.  Read full article PMCID: PMC2758796

Kulis, S., Marsiglia, F. F., Ayers, S. L., Booth, J. M., & Nuño-Gutierrez, B. L. (2012). Drug resistance and substance use among male and female adolescents in alternative secondary schools in Guanajuato, Mexico. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73, 111-119. Read online PMCID: PMC3237702

Kulis, S., Marsiglia, F. F., Ayers, S. L., Calderón-Tena, C. O., & Nuño-Gutierrez, B. L. (2011). Gender differences in drug resistance skills of youth in Guanajuato, Mexico. Journal of Primary Prevention, 32, 113-127. doi: 10.1007/s10935-011-0239-7  Read online PMCID: PMC3132188

Kulis, S., Marsiglia, F. F., & Hecht, M. L. (2002). Gender labels and gender identity as predictors of drug use among ethnically diverse middle school students. Youth and Society33, 442-475. Read abstract

Kulis, S., Marsiglia, F. F., & Hurdle, D. E. (2003). Gender identity, ethnicity, acculturation and drug use: Exploring differences among adolescents in the Southwest. Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 1-22. doi: 1O.1002/jcop. Read full article PMCID: PMC3045088

Kulis, S., Marsiglia, F. F., Kopak, A. M., Olmsted, M. E., & Crossman, A. (2012). Ethnic identity and substance use among Mexican-heritage preadolescents: Moderator effects of gender and time in the US. Journal of Early Adolescence, 32, 2, 165-199. doi:10.1177/0272431610384484  Read full article PMCID:PMC3392121

Kulis, S., Marsiglia, F. F., & Nagoshi, J. L. (2012). Gender roles and substance use among Mexican American adolescents: A relationship moderated by acculturation? Substance Use and Misuse, 47, 214-229. doi:10.3109/10826084.2011.630438.  Read full article PMCID: PMC3402241

Kulis, S., Marsiglia, F. F., & Nieri, T. A. (2009). Perceived discrimination versus acculturation stress: Influences on substance use among Latino youth in the Southwest. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50, 443-459.  Read full article PMCID: PMC2821707

Kulis, S., Marsiglia, F. F., Nieri, T. A., Sicotte, D., & Hohmann-Marriott, B. (2004). Majority rules? The effects of school ethnic composition on substance use by Mexican heritage adolescents. Sociological Focus, 37, 373-393. Read full article PMCID: PMC3113510.

Kulis, S., Marsiglia, F. F., Sicotte, D.M., & Nieri, T. A. (2007). Neighborhood effects on youth substance use in a southwestern city. Sociological Perspectives, 50, 273-301.  Read full article PMCID: PMC3040571

Kulis, S., Napoli, M., & Marsiglia, F. F. (2002). Ethnic pride, biculturalism, and drug use norms of urban American Indian adolescents. Social Work Research, 26, 101-112. Read full article PMCID: PMC3051189.

Marsiglia, F. F., Kulis, S., & Hecht, M. L. (2001). Ethnic labels and ethnic identity as predictors of drug use and drug exposure among middle school students in the Southwest. Journal of Research on Adolescence11, 21-48. Read abstract

Marsiglia, F. F., Kulis, S., Hecht, M. L., & Sills, S. (2004). Ethnicity and ethnic identity as predictors of drug norms and drug use among pre-adolescents in the Southwest. Substance Use and Misuse39, 1061-1094. doi: 10.1081/JA-120038030. Read full article PMCID: PMC3838636

Marsiglia, F. F., Kulis, S., Hussaini, S. K., Nieri, T. A., & Becerra, D. (2010). Gender differences in the effect of linguistic acculturation on substance use among Mexican-origin youth in the Southwest U.S. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 9, 40-63. doi: 10.1080/15332640903539252 Read full article PMCID: PMC2903967

Marsiglia, F. F., Kulis, S., Nieri, T. A., & Parsai, M. (2005). God forbid! Substance use among religious and nonreligious youth. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75, 585-598. doi: 10.1037/0002-9432.75.4.585. Read full article PMCID: PMC3043382

Marsiglia, F. F., Kulis, S., Wagstaff, D. A., Elek, E., & Dran, D. (2005). Acculturation status and substance use prevention with Mexican and Mexican American youth. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 5, 85-111. doi: 10.1300/J160v5n01_05. Reprinted in M. De la Rosa, L. Holleran, & L.A. Straussner (Eds.), Substance abusing Latinos: Current research on epidemiology, prevention and treatment. NY: Haworth, 2005. Read full article PMCID: PMC3110070

Marsiglia, F. F., Miles, B.W., Dustman, P. A., & Sills, S. (2003). Ties that protect: An ecological perspective on Latino/a urban pre-adolescent drug use. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work11, 191-220. Read abstract

Marsiglia, F. F., Yabiku, S. T., Kulis, S., Nieri, T. A., Parsai, M. B., & Becerra, D. (2011). The influence of linguistic acculturation and gender on the initiation of substance use among Mexican heritage preadolescents in the borderlands. Journal of Early Adolescence, 31, 271-299. doi:10.1177/0272431610363157.  Read full article PMCID: PMC3108799

Martinez, M., Marsiglia, F. F., Ayers, S. L., & Nuño-Gutiérrez, B. L. (2015).  Substance use, religion and Mexican adolescent intentions to use drugs. In Friedman, B. & Merrick, J. (Eds.). Public health, social work and health inequalities (pp. 131-146). New York: Nova Publishers.

Napoli, M., Marsiglia, F. F., & Kulis, S. (2003). Sense of belonging to school as a protective factor against drug use among urban Southwest Native American pre-adolescents. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 3, 25-41. doi: 10.1300J160v03n02_03. Read full article PMCID: PMC3045112

Nieri, T. (2012). School context and individual acculturation: How school composition affects Latino students’ acculturation. Sociological Inquiry, 82, 460–484. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-682X.2012.00423.x.  Read full article PMCID: PMC3519394

Nieri, T. A., Kulis, S., Keith, V. M., & Hurdle, D. (2005). Body image, acculturation, and substance abuse among boys and girls in the Southwest. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31, 617-639. doi: 10.1081/ADA-200068418. Read full article PMCID: PMC3043457

Nieri, T. A., Lee, C., Kulis, S., & Marsiglia, F. F. (2011). Acculturation among Mexican-heritage preadolescents: A latent class analysis. Social Science Research, 40, 1236-1248. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2011.02.005  Read full article PMCID: PMC3139995

Parsai, M., Marsiglia, F. F., & Kulis, S. (2010). Parental monitoring, religious involvement and drug use among Latino and non-Latino youth in the southwestern United States. British Journal of Social Work, 40, 100-114. doi: 10.1093/bjsw/bcn100. Read full article PMCID: PMC2799938

Parsai, M., Voisine, S., Marsiglia, F. F., Kulis, S., & Nieri, T. A. (2009). The protective and risk effects of parents and peers on substance use, attitudes and behaviors of Mexican heritage female and male adolescents. Youth & Society, 40, 353-376. Read full article PMCID: PMC2686611

Voisine, S., Parsai, M., Marsiglia, F. F., Kulis, S., & Nieri, T. A. (2008). Effects of Parental Monitoring, Permissiveness, and Injunctive Norms on Substance Use among Mexican and Mexican American Adolescents. Families in Society, 89, 264-273. Read full article PMCID: PMC 2910623

Wagstaff, D. A., Elek, E., Kulis, S., & Marsiglia, F. F. (2009). Using a nonparametric bootstrap to obtain a confidence interval for Pearson's r with cluster randomized data: A case study. Journal of Primary Prevention, 30, 497-512. doi: 10.1007/s10935-009-0191-y. Read full article PMCID: PMC2792874

Wagstaff, D. A., Kulis, S., & Elek, E. (2009). A six-wave study of the consistency of Mexican/Mexican American preadolescents’ lifetime substance use reports. Journal of Drug Education, 39, 361-384. Read full article PMCID: PMC2892828

Yabiku, S. T., Marsiglia, F. F., Kulis, S., Parsai, M. B., Becerra, D., & Del-Colle, M. (2010). Parental monitoring and changes in substance use among Latino/a and non-Latino/a preadolescents in the Southwest. Substance Use and Misuse, 45, 2524-2550. doi: 10.3109/10826081003728256.  Read full article PMCID: PMC3108798

Yabiku, S. T., Rayle, A. D., Okamoto, S. K., Marsiglia, F. F., & Kulis, S. (2007). The effect of neighborhood context on the drug use of American Indian youth of the Southwest. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 6, 181-204. Reprinted in P.L. Myers (Ed.), 21st century research on drugs and ethnicity: Studies supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, NY: Haworth, 2007. doi: 10.1300/J233v06n02-11. Read full article PMCID: PMC3045036

 

keepin' it REAL Training

The Southwest Interdisciplinary Research Center (SIRC) at Arizona State University offers curriculum training workshops, as well as trainer-of-trainers workshops for kiR.

 

 

Curriculum Training Workshop

In this workshop, participants become familiar with the kiR curriculum.  Participants learn about the research behind the curriculum and participate in activities reflective of those found in the curriculum, including (a) small group cooperative learning and interaction, (b) whole group discussions, (c) presentations, (d) role plays, and (e) games.  In addition, participants learn the use of narratives and the context of culture and how to help students recognize and value the strengths of their own narrative and cultural background, especially as related to resisting substance use.

Training goals emphasize in-depth knowledge of the curriculum:  the skills and concepts taught in each lesson, facilitation skills to promote students learning and engagement, and the use of resources available as they implement the curriculum.  Participants learn that a prevention curriculum can be instructionally engaging while theory-driven and academically rigorous. 

Prices for this 1-day training:

  • In-state community partners:  $2,500 (maximum of 25 attendees)
  • Out-of-state: $4,000 plus expenses for 2 trainers (maximum of 25 attendees)

For scheduling or more information, please contact Dr. Patricia Dustman, Director of Implementation and Development for SIRC at 602-496-0700 or Patricia.Dustman@asu.edu

Trainer of Trainers Workshop

In this workshop, participants learn how to lead, support, and coach the teachers and trainers from their district/organization who will be teaching the curriculum.  They participate in activities that provide (a) background information about the kiR project and curriculum, (b) an overview of the training program, (c) instructions on set-up and logistics for conducting training, and (d) step-by-step instructions on leading participants through the curriculum.  Attendees also receive the PowerPoint slides to use as they conduct the training, masters of the participants’ handouts, including agendas and workshop evaluation forms, tips on facilitating a successful workshop and introductory and grouping activities to use to build community while teaching. 

Participants must have completed the curriculum training as a prerequisite to attending this workshop.

For scheduling and pricing information, please contact Dr. Patricia Dustman, Director of Implementation and Development for SIRC at 602-496-0700 or Patricia.Dustman@asu.edu

 

Order kIR Curriculum

To order the keepin’ it REAL Curriculum visit ETR Associates at ETR.org

keepin' it REAL
Drug Resistance Strategies
(Video set) (Gr. 7-9)
order now through ETR Associates

DESCRIPTION:
  • Includes 1 Teacher Guide; 1 English Student Workbook; and one 36-minute video featuring 5 real-life segments that support lessons
  • Named a Model Program by the federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
  • Prepares students to act decisively in refusing offers to use drugs
  • Helps students recognize risks and avoid drug-related situations
  • Builds decision-making, communication, planning and assertive refusal skills
  • Empowers youth to value their own perceptions and feelings and make choices that support drug-free values

keepin' it REAL
Student Workbook (English and Spanish available)
(set of 5)
order now through ETR Associates

DESCRIPTION (both):
  • Supports keepin' it REAL Teacher Guide
  • Named a Model Program by the federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
  • Prepares students to act decisively in refusing offers to use drugs
  • Helps students recognize risks and avoid drug-related situations
  • Builds decision-making, communication, planning and assertive refusal skills
  • Empowers youth to value their own perceptions and feelings and make choices that support drug-free values